Home>ASTM Standards>ASTM A181-14(R2020) pdf free download

ASTM A181-14(R2020) pdf free download

ASTM A181-14(R2020) pdf free download.Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping
1. Scope
1.1 This specification 2 covers nonstandard as-forged fittings, valve components, and parts for general service. Forgings made to this specification are limited to a maximum weight of 10 000 lb [4540 kg]. Larger forgings may be ordered to Specification A266/A266M. 1.2 Two classes of material are covered, designated as Classes 60 and 70, respectively, and are classified in accor- dance with their mechanical properties as specified in 6.1. 1.3 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound units and SI units. However, unless the order specifies the applicable “M” specification designation (SI units), the material shall be furnished to inch-pound units. 1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently ofthe other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the specifi- cation. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. General Requirements and Ordering Information
3.1 Product furnished to this specification shall conform to the requirements of Specification A961/A961M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase order. Failure to comply with the requirements of Specification A961/A961M constitutes non-conformance with this specifi- cation. 3.2 It is the purchaser’s responsibility to specify in the purchase order all ordering information necessary to purchase the needed material. Examples of such information include but are not limited to the ordering information in Specification A961/A961M and the following: 3.2.1 Supplementary requirements, and 3.2.2 Additional requirements (See 4.3, 9.1, 11.2, 13.1, and 13.2). 3.3 If the requirements of this specification are in conflict with the requirements of Specification A961/A961M, the requirements of this specification shall prevail.
4. Materials and Manufacture
4.1 Except for flanges of all types, hollow, cylindrically shaped parts may be machined from hot-rolled or forged bar, provided that the axial length of the part is approximately parallel to the metal flow lines of the stock. Other parts, excluding flanges of all types, up to and including NPS 4 may be machined from hot-rolled or forged bar. Elbows, return bends, tees, and header tees shall not be machined directly from bar stock. 4.2 Except as permitted in 4.1, the finished product shall be a forging as defined in the Terminology section (exclusively) of Specification A788/A788M. 4.3 When specified in the order, the manufacturer shall submit for approval of the purchaser a sketch showing the shape of the rough forging before machining.4.4 Forgings shall be protected against sudden or too rapid cooling from the rolling or forging while passing through the critical range. 4.5 Heat treatment is neither required nor prohibited, but when applied, heat treatment shall consist of tempering, annealing, normalizing, or normalizing and tempering.
8. Retests
8.1 When one or more representative test specimens do not conform to specification requirements for the tested characteristic, only a single retest for each nonconforming characteristic may be performed to establish product accept- ability. Retests shall be performed on twice the number of representative specimens that were originally nonconforming. When any retest specimen does not conform to specification requirements for the characteristic in question, the lot repre- sented by that specimen shall be rejected, heat-treated or reheat-treated in accordance with 4.5, and tested in accordance with Sections 6 and 7.

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