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ASTM A232-2018 pdf free download

ASTM A232-2018 pdf free download.Standard Speci fication for Chromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Valve Spring Quality Wire
1. Scope
1.1 This specification covers the highest quality of round and shaped chromium-vanadium alloy steel valve spring wire, uniform in quality and temper, intended for the manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring high-fatigue proper- ties when used at moderately elevated temperatures. It is similar to the grade VD (referenced in EN 10270-2) intended for high fatigue levels. This wire shall be either in the annealed and cold-drawn or oil-tempered condition as specified by the purchaser. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.3 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions: 3.1.1 For definition of terms used in this specification, refer to Terminology A941. 3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3.2.1 billet, n—an as-cast or forged section, typically avail- able for transport, inspection, and conditioning, that is used as raw material for wire rod manufacture. 3.2.2 bloom, n—an as-cast or forged section used as raw material for billet manufacture. 3.2.3 equivalent round diameter, n—diameter of a round wire having equivalent cross sectional area to a given shaped wire. 3.2.4 round wire, n—wire having a circular cross section. 3.2.5 shape factor, n—a value used to obtain cross sectional area for shaped wires when multiplied by measured width and measured thickness. 3.2.6 shaped wire, n—wire having a non-circular cross section.
5. Materials and Manufacture
5.1 The steel shall be made by a steel making process combined with secondary ladle refining that is capable of satisfying the inclusion content requirements of this specifica- tion 5.2 The steel shall be continuously cast into blooms and rolled into billets. 5.3 Billet conditioning shall precede wire rod manufacture. The resulting wire rods shall be of sufficient surface quality that when combined with a surface removal operation per- formed prior to or during the wire manufacturing operation the resulting wire shall satisfy the surface condition and decarbur- ization requirements of this specification. 5.4 The finished wire shall be free from detrimental pipe and undue segregation. 5.5 Alternate manufacturing processes may be used upon agreement between purchaser and supplier provided that the minimum requirements of this standard are met.
6. Chemical Composition
6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemical composition specified in Table 1. 6.2 Heat Analysis—Each heat of steel shall be analyzed to determine the percentage of elements prescribed in Table 1. This analysis shall be made from a test specimen preferably taken during the pouring of the heat. When requested, this shall be reported to the purchaser and shall conform to the require- ments of Table 1. 6.3 Product Analysis—An analysis may be made by the purchaser from finished wire representing each heat of steel. The average of all the separate determinations made shall be within the limits specified in the analysis column. Individual determinations may vary to the extent shown in the product analysis tolerance column, except that the several determina- tions of a single element in any one heat shall not vary both above and below the specified range. 6.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology A751 shall be used.

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