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ASTM A802-2019 pdf free download

ASTM A802-2019 pdf free download.Standard Practice for Steel Castings, Surface Acceptance Standards, Visual Examination
1. Scope
1.1 This practice covers the acceptance criteria for the surface inspection of steel castings by visual examination. Four levels of acceptance standards are provided. 1.2 Acceptance levels utilize Steel Castings Research and Trade Association (SCRATA) graded reference comparators for the visual determination of surface texture, surface roughness, and surface discontinuities described as follows:1.3 Descriptions of terms related to casting discontinuities are in Section 2. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Terminology
2.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:2.1.1 rat tails, n—long, narrow, linear depressions or small steps occurring on a casting surface. Rat tails form as a result of sand expansion and minor buckling of the mold surface during filling of the mold with liquid metal. 2.1.2 scab, n—a raised, rough area on a casting that usually consists of a crust of metal covering a layer of sand. Sometimes, a scab consists of a raised, rough area of essen- tially solid metal on the surface of a casting. 2.1.3 veins, n—raised, narrow, linear ridges that form upon cracking of the sand mold or core due to expansion of sand and the resulting mold or core stresses during filling of the mold with liquid steel.2.1.4 external chills, n—usually metal blocks, or graphite and carbon blocks, that are incorporated into the mold to locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification. Brackets have the same purpose but represent an integral part of the casting. Brackets are produced by providing suitable cavities in the mold or core. External chills may produce flat spots and edges (raised areas or depressions) on the casting surface. Brackets merely change the casting appearance due to their presence. Brackets may be removed or allowed to remain on the casting. 2.1.5 parting line and core print fins, n—thin projections of excess metal at the parting plane between mold halves or core and mold. Causes are improper closing of the mold, insufficient weighting or clamping of the mold for pouring, or uneven pattern surfaces at the matching locations. Core print fins are usually caused by improper dimensions of core prints of the pattern or core box, by rough placement of cores in a soft mold, or by inadequately secured cores.2.1.7 laps, folds, and cold shuts, n—interchangeable terms to describe the appearance of the casting surface that is actually folded over. They develop due to low temperature, unfavorable flow conditions caused by oxide films, or combinations thereof. 2.1.8 misrun, n—an incompletely formed casting, due to only partial filling of the mold cavity when the liquid metal solidifies prematurely. The resulting casting appearance is characterized by rounded edges, for a mild degree of misrun. Irregular, malformed edges of more severe misruns, and not fully formed castings, are characteristic. Frequently, misruns are associated with such discontinuities as wrinkles or laps and folds, or both. 2.1.9 wrinkles, n—elongated, smooth depressions of the casting surface, frequently appearing in closely spaced groups. Wrinkles result from irregularities of the liquid metal flow in the mold cavity, frequently associated with low temperature, and are distinguished from the more severe phenomenon of laps, folds, or cold shuts where the casting surface is actually folded over.

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