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ASTM C1055-2020 pdf free download

ASTM C1055-2020 pdf free download.Standard Guide for Heated System Surface Conditions that Produce Contact Burn Injuries
1. Scope
1.1 This guide covers a process for the determination of acceptable surface operating conditions for heated systems. The human burn hazard is defined, and methods are presented for use in the design or evaluation ofheated systems to prevent serious injury from contact with the exposed surfaces. 1.2 The maximum acceptable temperature for a particular surface is derived from an estimate of the possible or probable contact time, the surface system configuration, and the level of injury deemed acceptable for a particular situation. 1.3 For design purposes, the probable contact time for industrial situations has been established at 5 s. For consumer products, a longer (60-s) contact time has been proposed by Wu (1) 2 and others to reflect the slower reaction times for children, the elderly, or the infirm. 1.4 The maximum level of injury recommended here is that causing first degree burns on the average subject. This type of injury is reversible and causes no permanent tissue damage. For cases where more severe conditions are mandated (by space, economic, exposure probability, or other outside considerations), this guide is used to establish a second, less desirable injury level (second degree burns), where some permanent tissue damage is permitted. At no time, however, are conditions that produce third degree burns recommended. 1.5 This guide addresses the skin contact temperature de- termination for passive heated surfaces only. The guidelines contained herein are not applicable to chemical, electrical, or other similar hazards that provide a heat generation source at the location of contact. 1.6 A bibliography of human burn evaluation studies and surface hazard measurement is provided in the list of refer- ences at the end of this guide (1-16).1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.9 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions ofTerms Specific to This Standard: 3.1.1 skin: 3.1.2 epidermis—the outermost layer of skin cells. This layer contains no vascular or nerve cells and acts to protect the skin layers. The thickness of this layer averages 0.08 mm. 3.1.3 dermis—the second layer of skin tissue. This layer contains the blood vessels and nerve endings. The thickness of this layer averages 2 mm. 3.1.4 necrosis—localized death of living cells. A clinical term that defines when permanent damage to a skin layer has occurred. 3.1.5 burns:3.1.6 first degree burn—the reaction to an exposure where the intensity or duration is insufficient to cause complete necrosis of the epidermis. The normal response to this level of exposure is dilation of the superficial blood vessels (reddening of the skin). 3.1.7 second degree burn—the reaction to an exposure where the intensity and duration is sufficient to cause complete necrosis of the epidermis but no significant damage to the dermis. The normal response to this exposure is blistering of the epidermis. 3.1.8 third degree burn—the reaction to an exposure where significant dermal necrosis occurs. Significant dermal necrosis has been defined in the literature (3) as 75% destruction of the dermis. The normal response to this exposure is open sores that leave permanent scar tissue upon healing. 3.1.9 contact exposure—the process by which the surface of skin makes intimate contact with a heated surface such that no insulating layer, film, moisture, etc., interferes with the rapid transfer of available energy. 3.1.10 insulation system—the combination of an insulation material or jacket, or both that forms a barrier to the rapid loss of energy from a heated surface. The insulation system potentially involves a broad range of types and configurations of materials. 3.1.11 jacket—the protective barrier placed on the exposed side ofan insulation to protect the insulation from deterioration or abuse. The jacket material is potentially made of paper, plastic, metal, canvas cloth, or combinations of the above or similar materials.

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