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ASTM C16-2018 pdf free download

ASTM C16-2018 pdf free download.Standard Test Method for Load Testing Refractory Shapes at High Temperatures
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resis- tance to deformation or shear of refractory shapes when subjected to a specified compressive load at a specified temperature for a specified time. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Significance and Use
3.1 The ability of refractory shapes to withstand prescribed loads at elevated temperatures is a measure of the high- temperature service potential of the material. By definition, refractory shapes must resist change due to high temperature, and the ability to withstand deformation or shape change when subjected to significant loading at elevated temperatures is clearly demonstrated when refractory shapes are subjected to this test method. The test method is normally run at a sufficiently high temperature to allow some liquids to form within the test brick or to cause weakening of the bonding system. The result is usually a decrease in sample dimension parallel to the applied load and increase in sample dimensions perpendicular to the loading direction. Occasionally, shear fracture can occur. Since the test provides easily measurable changes in dimensions, prescribed limits can be established, and the test method has been long used to determine refractory quality. The test method has often been used in the establish- ment of written specifications between producers and consum- ers. 3.2 This test method is not applicable for refractory mate- rials that are unstable in an oxidizing atmosphere unless means are provided to protect the specimens.
4. Apparatus
4.1 The apparatus shall consist essentially of a furnace and a loading device. It may be constructed in accordance with Fig. 1 or Fig. 2 or their equivalent. 4 4.1.1 The furnace shall be so constructed that the tempera- ture is substantially uniform in all parts of the furnace. The temperature as measured at any point on the surface of the test specimens shall not differ by more than 10 °F (5.5 °C) during the holding period of the test or, on test to failure, above 2370 °F (1300 °C). To accomplish this, it may be necessary to install and adjust baffles within the furnace. A minimum oftwo burners shall be used. If difficulty is encountered in following the low-temperature portion of the schedule (particularly for silica brick), a dual-burner system is recommended, one to supply heat for low temperatures and another for the higher temperatures. 4.2 The temperature shall be measured either with cali- brated platinum – platinum – rhodium thermocouples, 5,6,7 each encased in a protection tube with the junction not more than 1 in. (25 mm) from the center of the side or edge of each specimen or with a calibrated pyrometer. 5,6,7 A recording form oftemperature indicator is recommended. Ifthe optical pyrom- eter is used, observations shall be made by sighting on the face of the specimens and in the same relative positions as those specified for the thermocouples.

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