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ASTM C179-2019 pdf free download

ASTM C179-2019 pdf free download.Standard Test Method for Drying and Firing Linear Change of Refractory Plastic and Ramming Mix Specimens
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the drying shrinkage and of the combined drying and linear change of refractory ramming mixes and plastics. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Significance and Use
3.1 This test method is useful in quantitatively rating or ranking both ramming and refractory plastics by their linear stability after heating. 3.2 This test method is also useful for determining whether a ramming or refractory plastic can be used in a specified application based on linear change criteria. 3.3 This test method excludes basic and carbon-bearing materials. 3.4 This test method can produce data for the engineering and design of refractory installations. The linear change data can be used to determine the number of joints necessary to maintain integrity of ramming or refractory plastic in a large installation.
4. Apparatus
4.1 Kiln, electric or gas type, of such design that the flame, as coming directly from the burner, cannot impinge upon the test specimens. 4.2 Measuring Device, capable of being read to 0.02 in. (0.5 mm). A hooked rule, 12 in. (305 mm), is convenient to use and a suitable type is described in Test Methods C134. Other measuring devices, such as calipers or dial gages, of the same or better precision may also be used.
5. Test Specimens
5.1 Number of Specimens—A minimum of six specimens molded from the sample (see Note 1) of refractory plastic will be required. Halfofthe specimens shall be used for the test and the other half used as supporting pieces during the kiln heat treatment. N OTE 1—For pressing and drying the specimens, see Practice C1054. 5.2 Measurement of Specimens—Using the measuring device, measure the bar for all dimensions to the nearest 0.02 in. (0.5 mm). Label and make reference marks to indicate the exact length measurement points. Caution should be taken, as deformation of the specimens may be caused by handling.
8. Precision and Bias
8.1 The precision of this test method is based on an interlaboratory study conducted in 2012. A total of five laboratories participated in this study in an effort to determine the intralaboratory and interlaboratory precision of this test method. Laboratories were asked to report three test results per material, and each test result was defined as a single analytical determination. Practice E691 was followed for the design and analysis of the data, except for the limited number of labora- tories submitting results. All details are given in RR:C08- 1024. 3 Two of the five laboratories had test results higher than the critical h and critical k values indicating some type of issue occurred, but the subcommittee decided to include these laboratory results anyway due to the limited number of laboratories already involved in the study. 8.1.1 Repeatability, r—The difference between repetitive results obtained by the same operator in a given laboratory, applying the same test method with the same apparatus under constant operating conditions on identical test material within short intervals oftime would, in the long run, in the normal and correct operation of the test method, exceed the following values only in one case in 20. Repeatability can be interpreted as the maximum difference between two results, obtained under repeatability conditions, that is accepted as plausible due to random causes under normal and correct operation of the test method. Repeatability limits are listed in Tables 1-3. 8.1.2 Reproducibility, R—The difference between two single and independent results obtained by different operators apply- ing the same test method in different laboratories, using different apparatus on identical test material would, in the long run, in the normal and correct operation of the test method, exceed the following values only in one case in 20.

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