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ASTM C373-2018 pdf free download

ASTM C373-2018 pdf free download.Standard Test Methods for Determination of Water Absorption and Associated Properties by Vacuum Method for Pressed Ceramic Tiles and Glass Tiles and Boil Method for Extruded Ceramic Tiles and Non-tile Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products
1. Scope
1.1 These test methods covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of non-tile fired unglazed ceramic whiteware 2 products, glazed or unglazed ceramic tiles, and glass tiles. 1.2 The values stated in metric units are normative. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not normative. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
5. Test Specimens:
5.1 Non-tile Fired Ceramic Whitewares: 5.1.1 At least five representative test specimens shall be selected that have not been previously tested. The specimens shall be unglazed and shall have as much of the surface freshly fractured as is practical. Sharp edges or corners shall be removed. The specimens shall contain no cracks. The indi- vidual test specimens shall weigh at least 50 g (0.11 lb). 5.2 Ceramic Tiles and Glass Tiles: 5.2.1 Sampling shall be carried out in accordance with Table 1 and 5.2.2 through 5.2.8 based on the length (x), width (y), and the area ofthe tiles to be tested (for irregularly shaped tiles, see Note 1). Tiles and relevant specimens must contain no visible damage or cracks prior to testing and have not been previously tested. Any loose or contaminating material shall be removed. This includes any mesh, paper and adhesive that has been applied to mosaics. Cutting of specimens, as described in the following sections, shall consist ofscoring and snapping, or sawing when impossible to score and snap with conventional tile scoring equipment (as can be the case with some glass tiles and textured and structured porcelain tiles). N OTE 1—For irregularly shaped tiles (hexagons, circles, and so forth), consider the area of the minimum rectangle in which the tile can be fit. 5.2.2 For tiles less than or equal to 420 cm 2 (65 in. 2 ), at least five representative test specimens shall be selected. Specimens shall be cut in half, within 10 mm (0.4 in.). Specimens shall be cut perpendicular to the longest side if the specimen has unequal sides. Select one half at random from each specimen for testing (see Fig. 1a and Fig. 1b). 5.2.3 For tiles greater than 420 cm 2 (65 in. 2 ) and less than or equal to 3600 cm 2 (558 in. 2 ), with x and y > 205 mm (8 in.), at least five representative test specimens shall be selected. A 205 × 205 mm (8 × 8 in.) portion, within 10 mm (0.4 in.), shall be cut from one corner of each specimen for testing (see Fig. 2).
6. Procedure
6.1 Dry the test specimens to constant mass (Note 3) by heating in an oven at 150 6 5°C (302 6 9°F) for a minimum of24 h (or such other time as has been established for the oven in use and the mass of the tiles being dried), followed by cooling in a desiccator. Determine the dry mass, D, to the nearest 0.01 g (0.00002 lb) (see Note 2). N OTE 2—Specimens being tested directly following their manufacture may be considered fully dried so long as they have not been subjected to any process that wets the specimen post firing (such as can occur in cutting and polishing operations) and are placed in a desiccator sufficiently quickly (usually within no more than 30 min of exiting the kiln) that no moisture has been absorbed from ambient air. N OTE 3—The drying of the specimens and the determination of their masses may be done either before or after the specimens have been impregnated with water. Usually the dry mass is determined before impregnation. However, if the specimens are friable or evidence indicates that particles have broken loose during the impregnation, the specimens shall be dried and weighed after the suspended mass and the saturated mass have been determined, in accordance with 6.4 and 6.5. In this case, the second dry mass shall be used in all appropriate calculations. 6.2 Water Impregnation of Extruded Ceramic Tiles and Non-tile Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products Using Boil Method: 6.2.1 For Non-tile Fired Ceramic Whitewares—Bring DI or distilled water to a boil in a stainless steel boiling container. (Warning—Handling water at boiling or near boiling tempera- ture can present a safety hazard. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment.) Place the specimens in the boiling DI or distilled water, and use setter pins, a rustproof rack, or equivalent to separate the specimens from the bottom and sides ofthe stainless steel boiling container and from each other.

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