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ASTM D2207-00(R2021) pdf free download

ASTM D2207-00(R2021) pdf free download.Standard Test Method for Bursting Strength of Leather by the Ball Method
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the burst- ing strength ofleather by the ball method. It may be used to test a large variety ofleathers and leather products. It is particularly applicable to light- and medium-weight leathers, such as shoe uppers and garments. This test method does not apply to wet blue. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- bility ofregulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 D1517 Terminology Relating to Leather D1610 Practice for Conditioning Leather and Leather Prod- ucts for Testing D1813 Test Method for Measuring Thickness of Leather Test Specimens D2209 Test Method for Tensile Strength of Leather
3. Terminology
3.1 For definitions of leather terms used in this standard refer to Terminology D1517.
4. Summary of Test Method
4.1 The leather specimen is mounted in the ball burst fixture which is attached to a testing machine, as described in Test Method D2209. The machine is operated at a jaw separation of 4 6 1 in./min. The maximum load registered is recorded. The bursting strength in lb/in. of thickness is calculated by dividing the bursting load by the thickness of the specimen.
5. Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is designed to measure the bursting strength of leather by measuring the force required to force a spherical ended plunger through a piece of leather. The bursting load and extension will be generally proportional to the diameter of the plunger. This test method is suitable for development, control and service evaluation of the leather. There is good correlation between bursting strength and tensile strength. This test method may not apply when the conditions of the test employed differ widely from those specified in the test method.
6. Apparatus
6.1 Testing Machine, as described in Test Method D2209. N OTE 1—The machine shall have a cross-head speed of 4 6 1 in./min (1.6 6 0.4 mm/s). 6.2 Thickness Gage—Adead-mass type ofthickness gage as described in Test Method D1813. 6.3 Burst Tester, 3 as shown in Fig. 1. The diameter of the ball or plunger shall be 1 ⁄ 4 in. (0.250 in. (6.4 mm)). 6.4 Parts Required to Modify Burst Tester, as illustrated in Fig. 2, or equivalent. 6.5 Die, Knife, or Shears, for cutting the test specimen. 6.6 Dial Gage, mounted on the burst tester as shown in Fig. 1 to measure the height of the extension of the leather specimen. N OTE 2—This gage shall be calibrated to read directly to the nearest 0.001 in. (0.025 mm). It shall be equipped with a flat anvil and presser foot. 6.7 Autographic Recorder to record the extension to the nearest 0.1 in. (2.5 mm).
7. Test Specimen
7.1 The test specimen shall be a disk of leather at least 1.75 in. (44.5 mm) in diameter. 7.2 A strip of leather between 1.75 and 6 in. (44.5 and 152 mm) wide may be used for a test specimen. Two tests shall be run on each strip. N OTE 3—When tests are made on a strip of leather, the clamping areas can be overlapped so that tests can be made with a minimum distance of 1.25 in. (31.8 mm) between bursts.
8. Conditioning
8.1 All specimens shall be conditioned in accordance with Practice D1610. Conditioning other than that prescribed shall be noted in the results.
9. Procedure
9.1 Measure the thickness of the specimen to the nearest 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) in two places near its center of testing. N OTE 4—If the test specimen is a strip, the centers of all the test areas shall be properly marked, and the thickness at each center shall be determined. 9.2 Mount the specimen holder in the machine. Place the specimen in the holder, grain up. Adjust the space between the gripping surface in accordance with the thickness of the specimen, and grip the specimen securely by pulling the plunger handle downward. 9.3 Operate the machine at 4 6 1 in./min (1.6 6 0.4 mm/s). 9.4 Observe the specimen for total burst. Record the maxi- mum load registered by the machine as the bursting load. N OTE 5—Bursting strength, in pounds per inch of thickness, can be calculated by dividing the bursting load by the thickness of the specimen measured in inches. 9.5 Observe on the gage the extension or stretch of the leather at different loads up to total burst.

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