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ASTM D2332-13(R2021) pdf free download

ASTM D2332-13(R2021) pdf free download.Standard Practice for Analysis of Water-Formed Deposits by Wavelength- Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
1. Scope
1.1 This practice covers X-ray spectrochemical analysis of water-formed deposits. 1.2 The practice is applicable to the determination of elements of atomic number 11 or higher that are present in significant quantity in the sample (usually above 0.1 %). 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
4. Summary of Practice
4.1 The sample or its fusion with a suitable flux is powdered and the powder is compacted (mounted). The mount is then irradiated by an X-ray beam ofshort wavelength (high energy). The characteristic X rays of the atom that are emitted or fluoresced upon absorption of the primary or incident X rays are dispersed, and intensities at selected wavelengths are measured by sensitive detectors. Detector output is related to concentration by calibration curves or charts. 4.2 The K spectral lines are used for elements of atomic numbers 11 to 50. Whether the K or L lines are used for the elements numbered 51 or higher depends on the available instrumentation.
5. Significance and Use
5.1 Certain elements present in water-formed deposits are identified. Concentration levels of the elements are estimated. 5.2 Deposit analysis assists in providing proper water con- ditioning. 5.3 Deposits formed from or by water in all its phases may be further classified as scale, sludge, corrosion products, or biological deposits. The overall composition of a deposit or some part of a deposit may be determined by chemical or spectrographic analysis; the constituents actually present as chemical substances may be identified by microscope or X-ray diffraction studies. Organisms may be identified by micro- scopical or biological methods.
9. Preparation of Sample
9.1 Reduce the entire sample of deposits to about 100 g (drying, degreasing, and crushing if necessary) and grind this subsample to a powder that will pass a No. 100 (150-µm) sieve. 9.2 Mix the powdered sample thoroughly and remove about 10 g for X-ray fluorescence testing (Note 1). Fuse a weighed amount with a weighed amount of a suitable flux (2 to 10 g of flux/g ofsample) to present a reproducible surface composition to the X-ray beam. N OTE 1—At least semiquantitative results can be obtained more quickly by compacting (mounting) the test portion (9.3 and 9.4) and proceeding in accordance with Sections 10, 11, and 12. The decrease in sample preparation will actually result in improved accuracy in some instances. 9.3 Grind not more than 10 g of the material prepared for X-ray analysis (sample or fusion) to pass a No. 270 (53-µm sieve). 9.4 Make duplicate wafers (or suitable mounts for the particular equipment that will be used) by compacting the powdered sample (precision and accuracy are improved by briquetting). An internal standard is frequently added by fusion to the material to be compacted. Some samples may require a binder (generally organic and added in minimum concentra- tion) for reproducible packing and a smooth surface.

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