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ASTM D396-2018 pdf free download

ASTM D396-2018 pdf free download.Standard Specification for Fuel Oils
1. Scope
1.1 This specification (see Note 1) covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types offuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows: 1.1.1 Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 1 S15, No. 2 S5000, No. 2 S500, and No. 2 S15 are middle distillate fuels for use in domestic and small industrial burners. Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, and No. 1 S15 are particularly adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel. 1.1.2 Grades B6–B20 S5000, B6–B20 S500, and B6–B20 S15 are middle distillate fuel/biodiesel blends for use in domestic and small industrial burners. 1.1.3 Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 are heavy distillate fuels or middle distillate/residual fuel blends used in commercial/industrial burners equipped for this viscosity range. 1.1.4 Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 are residual fuels of increasing viscosity and boiling range, used in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization. N OTE 1—For information on the significance of the terminology and test methods used in this specification, see Appendix X1. N OTE 2—A more detailed description of the grades of fuel oils is given in X1.3. 1.2 This specification is for the use of purchasing agencies in formulating specifications to be included in contracts for purchases offuel oils and for the guidance ofconsumers offuel oils in the selection of the grades most suitable for their needs. 1.3 Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which can be more restrictive. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions: 3.1.1 additive, n—in fuel oils, a substance added to fuel oil at a blend level not greater than 1 % by volume of the finished fuel. Discussion—Additives are generally included in fin- ished fuel oil to enhance performance properties (for example, stability, pour point, and so forth) Discussion—Additives that contain hydrocarbon oil blended with other substances may exclude the hydrocarbon oil portion for determination of the volume percent of the finished fuel. Discussion—Triglycerides (for example, vegetable oils, animal fats, greases, and so forth) have been found to cause fouling of fuel oil burning equipment, and triglycerides are therefore not allowed as additives or components of additives. 3.1.2 alternative blendstock, n—in fuel oils, a non- hydrocarbon oil substance added to fuel oil at blend levels greater than 1 % by volume of the finished fuel. Discussion—An alternative blendstock should nor- mally have an industry consensus standard or an annex in this specification that defines its physical and chemical properties. Discussion—See Appendix X3 for guidance regard- ing new materials for No. 1 and No. 2 grades of fuel oils. 3.1.3 biodiesel, n—fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100. 3.1.4 biodiesel blend (BXX), n—blend of biodiesel fuel with fuel oils. Discussion—In the abbreviation BXX, the XX rep- resents the volume percentage of biodiesel fuel in the blend. 3.1.5 hydrocarbon oil, n—a homogeneous mixture with elemental composition primarily of carbon and hydrogen that may also contain sulfur, oxygen, or nitrogen from residual impurities and contaminants associated with the fuel’s raw materials and manufacturing processes and excluding added oxygenated materials. Discussion—Neither macro nor micro emulsions are included in this definition since neither are homogeneous mixtures. Discussion—Examples of excluded oxygenated ma- terials are alcohols, esters, ethers, and triglycerides. Discussion—The hydrocarbon oil may be manufac- tured from a variety of raw materials, for example, petroleum (crude oil), oil sands, natural gas, coal, and biomass. Appendix X3 discusses some matters for consideration regarding the use of fuel oils from feedstocks other than petroleum.

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