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ASTM D4095-97(R2020) pdf free download

ASTM D4095-97(R2020) pdf free download.Standard Practice for Use of the Refractometer for Determining Nonvolatile Matter (Total Solids) in Floor Polishes
1. Scope
1.1 This practice covers the use of a refractometer for determining the nonvolatile matter (total solids) in floor polishes. This practice is also applicable to resin solutions and wax emulsions used in floor polishes. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
6. Procedure
6.1 Determine the nonvolatile matter in the polish, resin, or wax emulsion in accordance with Test Method D2834 using a minimum of three and preferably four replicates. Record the arithmetic average. 6.2 Adjust prism temperature of the refractometer to 25°C through the use of a water bath. Temperatures of 20°C and 30°C are also commonly used for refractive index work. Any convenient temperature may be used as long as that tempera- ture is used consistently. 6.3 Standardize the refractometer using the procedure in Test Method D1218 or according to the refractometer manu- facturer’s instructions. In either case, standard reference liquids should be used. 6.4 Determine the refractive index ofthe process water used for preparation of the polish, resin, or wax emulsion according to the procedure in Test Method D1218. 6.5 Determine the refractive index of the same sample of polish, resin solution, or wax emulsion from 6.1 according to the procedure in Test Method D1218. (Take multiple readings and record the arithmetic average.) 6.6 Plot a curve ofrefractive index versus solids on standard (20 by 20/in.) graph paper.6.6.1 Use zero (0 %) solids and the refractive index of the process water as the origin. 6.6.2 Plot the solids from 6.1 and the refractive index from 6.5 as the second point. Draw a line connecting the origin to the second point. Curves, thus produced for polishes, resin solutions, and wax emulsions are usually straight lines. Veri- fication must be made by careful dilution (by weight) of the sample with the process water; determine the refractive index of the diluted sample that should fall on the curve at the calculated solids. 6.6.3 Curves should be checked periodically by determining solids in accordance with Test Method D2834 to make sure the curve has not shifted. Generally, once a year is sufficient. 6.6.4 Each formulation has its own individual curve. Chang- ing ingredients or ratios of ingredients in a particular formu- lation will change the slope of the curve and require develop- ment of a new curve for the revised composition.
7. Some Practical Uses of the Data
7.1 The curve plotted in 6.6.2 can be adapted in several ways to provide useful information and data for production control. 7.1.1 The curve itself can be used to determine solids of polish or polish components while in process. N OTE 1—The useful area of the curve can be enlarged to provide easier reading with increased accuracy. 7.1.2 The data from the curve can be used to prepare a table of refractive index readings over a useful range of solids. This avoids the necessity of constant reference to the actual plot of the curve. 7.1.3 The data from the curve can be used to prepare a table of “water to add” to achieve a specific solids. For each refractive index reading covering the range of interest there is a volume (gallons or litres) of water to add. Each batch of material produced must be brought to some specific, known base volume to use a “water to add” table.
8. Cautions and Comments
8.1 Refractive index is very sensitive to temperature. A good rule of thumb is for every 1°C temperature change the refractive index changes about 0.0002; as the temperature increases the refractive index decreases. 8.2 Refractive index varies with different wave lengths of light. Yellow light (sodium, D) is most commonly used. It is important to use a constant light source. 8.3 Each laboratory must develop its own curves, based on solids (nonvolatile matter) results, in its oven (and other equipment), its own refractometer and its own trained opera- tors.

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