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ASTM D413-2017 pdf free download

ASTM D413-2017 pdf free download.Standard Test Methods for Rubber Property—Adhesion to Flexible Substrate
1. Scope
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the adhesion strength between plies of fabric bonded with rubber or the adhesion ofthe rubber layer in articles made from rubber attached to other material. They are applicable only when the adhered surfaces are approximately plane or uniformly circular as in belting, hose, tire carcasses, or rubber-covered sheet metal. 1.2 When the adhered surfaces contain sharp bends, angles, or other gross irregularities that cannot be avoided in preparing test specimens, special test methods must be employed for evaluating adhesion. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Summary of Test Method
3.1 Two general test methods are given: 3.1.1 Static-Mass Method, in which the force required to cause separation between adhered surfaces is applied by means of gravity acting on a mass. 3.1.2 Machine Method, in which the force required to cause separation between adhered surfaces is applied by means of a tension machine. 3.2 Except as may be otherwise specified in these test methods, the requirements of Practices D3182 and D3183, shall be complied with and are made a part of these test methods. 3.3 In case of conflict between the provisions of these test methods and those ofdetailed specifications or test methods for a particular material, the latter shall take precedence. 3.4 As covered by these test methods, an adhesion test consists of applying to a test specimen, under specified conditions, a (measured) force sufficient to strip from the specimen at a measured rate, a layer of moderate thickness with separation (rupture, tearing) at the adhered surfaces. The numerical value of the adhesion is expressed as (1) the average force required to cause separation at a definite rate, or (2) the average rate of separation caused by a known or specified force. In the machine test method, the rate ofseparation is fixed and the adhesion value must be expressed in terms of the measured force. With the static-mass test method, either (1) or (2) can be used, but the latter is preferable and will be here employed.
6. Test Specimens
6.1 Strip Specimens—Type A—Plane strips having a width of 25 + 3, − 0 mm (1 + 0.125, − 0 in.), and a minimum length such as to permit 180° peel separation over sufficient distance to indicate the adhesion value. 6.1.1 Cut the specimen to 25 + 3, − 0 mm (1 + 0.125 − 0 in.) wide. The thickness will vary according to the construction of the article being tested. The maximum thickness of the specimen is limited to 13 mm (0.5 in.). To comply with this requirement, slice or buff the specimen. The ply or layer being separated should never be over 6.5 mm (0.25 in.) thick. 6.1.2 Cut the specimen from the article in such a manner that the adhered parts have the same width where practicable. The technique used in 6.2.2 and 6.2.3 may be applied here. When necessary, or specified, cut only the layer to be separated (by application of load) to the prescribed width. In such cases, remove the portions of that layer remaining outside of the test width to avoid edge constriction during separation. 6.1.3 Curved specimens for test in strip form shall have curvature only in the length dimension of the specimen. 6.2 Strip Specimens—Type B—The same as Type A, with the exception of 90° peel and the separation line in the center of the specimen. 6.2.1 Cut the specimen 35 mm (1 3 ⁄ 8 in.) wide. Remove the excess plies to obtain a thickness of6 mm ( 1 ⁄ 4 in.) and leave the separation line in the center of the specimen to ensure a 90° peel. 6.2.2 Buff to a width of 30 mm (1 1 ⁄ 8 in.) with a coarse grit emery cloth (grit No. 40) with care to prevent burning or gumming the sides of the specimen.

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