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ASTM D445-2019 pdf free download

ASTM D445-2019 pdf free download.Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
1. Scope
1.1 This test method specifies a procedure for the determi- nation of the kinematic viscosity, ν, of liquid petroleum products, both transparent and opaque, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, η, can be obtained by multiplying the kinematic viscosity, ν, by the density, ρ, of the liquid. N OTE 1—For the measurement of the kinematic viscosity and viscosity of bitumens, see also Test Methods D2170 and D2171. N OTE 2—ISO 3104 corresponds to Test Method D445 – 03. 1.2 The result obtained from this test method is dependent upon the behavior ofthe sample and is intended for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow behavior). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results may be obtained from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils, which under some conditions exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, have been included. 1.3 The range of kinematic viscosities covered by this test method is from 0.2 mm 2 /s to 300 000 mm 2 /s (see Table A1.1) at all temperatures (see 6.3 and 6.4). The precision has only been determined for those materials, kinematic viscosity ranges and temperatures as shown in the footnotes to the precision section. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The SI unit used in this test method for kinematic viscosity is mm 2 /s, and the SI unit used in this test method for dynamic viscosity is mPa·s. For user reference, 1 mm 2 /s = 10 -6 m 2 /s = 1 cSt and 1 mPa·s = 1 cP = 0.001 Pa·s.1.5 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Ma- terial Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website—http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm—for addi- tional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury-containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 See also International Vocabulary ofMetrology. 9 3.2 Definitions: 3.2.1 digital contact thermometer (DCT), n—an electronic device consisting of a digital display and associated tempera- ture sensing probe. Discussion—This device consists of a temperature sensor connected to a measuring instrument; this instrument measures the temperature-dependent quantity of the sensor, computes the temperature from the measured quantity, and provides a digital output. This digital output goes to a digital display and/or recording device that may be internal or external to the device. These devices are sometimes referred to as “digital thermometers.” Discussion—PET is an acronym for portable elec- tronic thermometers, a subset of digital contact thermometers (DCT). 3.3 Definitions ofTerms Specific to This Standard: 3.3.1 automated viscometer, n—apparatus which, in part or in whole, has mechanized one or more of the procedural steps indicated in Section 11 or 12 without changing the principle or technique of the basic manual apparatus. The essential ele- ments of the apparatus in respect to dimensions, design, and operational characteristics are the same as those of the manual method. Discussion—Automated viscometers have the capa- bility to mimic some operation of the test method while reducing or removing the need for manual intervention or interpretation. Apparatus which determine kinematic viscosity by physical techniques that are different than those used in this test method are not considered to be Automated Viscometers.

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