Home>ASTM Standards>ASTM D7243-11(R2020) pdf free download

ASTM D7243-11(R2020) pdf free download

ASTM D7243-11(R2020) pdf free download.Standard Guide for Measuring the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Paper Industry Sludges
1. Scope
1.1 Paper industry sludges are industrial by-products de- rived from wastewater treatment operations at plants associated with the manufacturing of paper. These sludges typically consist of clay and organic matter. They may also contain low levels ofinorganic and organic contaminants and can be rich in microbes. Traditionally, paper industry sludges have been disposed in municipal solid waste landfills or solid waste monofills. However, in the interest of sustainability, applica- tions are being developed where sludges can be used benefi- cially. One application is using sludge to construct hydraulic barriers (for example, for use in a landfill cap). Such applica- tions generally require that the hydraulic conductivity of the sludge be measured. 1.2 Compacted paper industry sludges generally behave like soils and are amenable to geotechnical testing methods. However, several of their attributes require special attention during testing. Compacted industry sludges generally are highly compressible due to their organic component. Thus, their hydraulic conductivity can be more sensitive to the effective stress and hydraulic gradient applied during testing than most soils. The microbes in paper sludge can also produce gas during testing, confounding testing methods. 1.3 This guide is intended to supplement ASTM D5084, Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeame- ter. The purpose of the guide is to provide additional guidance on issues relevant to testing sludges using Test Methods D5084. The guide applies to specimens compacted in the laboratory using procedures such as those described in Test Methods D698 and D1557 or undisturbed specimens collected from the field using procedures such as Practice D1587/ D1587M or Practice D7015/D7015M.1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. This standard contains a hazards section regarding the use of biocides (Section 10). 1.6 This guide offers an organized collection ofinformation or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education or experience and shouldbe used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects ofthis guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to repre- sent or replace the standard ofcare by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration ofa project’s many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions: 3.1.1 For common definitions of other terms in this standard, see Terminology D653. 3.1.2 paper industry sludge—porous solid material derived from clarification of water during wastewater treatment opera- tions at plants producing paper and similar materials. Also referred to as paper sludge, papermill sludge, fiber clay, paper clay, or sludge. 3.1.3 head loss, h L orh—the change in total head of water across a given distance. Discussion—Typically the change in total head is across the influent and effluent lines connected to the permeameter, while the given distance is typically the length of the test specimen. 3.1.4 permeameter—the apparatus (cell) containing the test specimen in a hydraulic conductivity test. Discussion—The apparatus in this case is typically a triaxial-type cell with all of its components (top and bottom specimen caps, stones, and filter paper; membrane; chamber; top and bottom plates; valves; etc.). However, the cell gener- ally does not have a loading piston. 3.1.5 hydraulic conductivity, k—the rate of discharge of water under laminar flow conditions through a unit cross- sectional area of porous medium under a unit hydraulic gradient and standard temperature conditions (20°C). Discussion—The term coeffıcient ofpermeability (or permeability) is often used instead of hydraulic conductivity, but hydraulic conductivity is used exclusively in this standard. These terms are synonymous.

Maybe you like

Standards Tags