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ASTM D8000-15(R2020) pdf free download

ASTM D8000-15(R2020) pdf free download.Standard Practice for Flow Conditioning of Natural Gas and Liquids
1. Scope
1.1 This practice covers flow conditioners that produce a fully developed flow profile for liquid and gas phase fluid flow for circular duct sizes 1- to 60-in. (25.4- to 1525-mm) diameter and Reynolds Number (Re) ranges from transition (100) to 100 000 000. These flow conditioners can be used for any type of flow meter or development of a fully developed flow profile for other uses. 1.2 The central single-hole configuration that is derived using fundamental screen theory is referenced as the flow conditioner described herein. 1.3 Piping lengths upstream and downstream of a flow conditioner are considered a critical component of a flow conditioner and constitute the complete flow conditioner sys- tem. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Refer to Terminology D4150 for general definitions related to gaseous fuels. Definitions specific to this standard follow. 3.2 Definitions ofTerms Specific to This Standard: 3.2.1 annuli, n—ring-shaped object, structure, or region. 3.2.2 axial symmetry, n—symmetry around an axis; an object is axially symmetric if its appearance is unchanged if rotated around an axis. 3.2.3 Reynolds number, n—dimensionless number used in fluid mechanics to indicate whether fluid flow past a body or in a duct is steady or turbulent. 3.2.4 velocity profile, n—variation in velocity along a line at right angles to the general direction of flow. 4. Significance and Use 4.1 Flow conditioners are used for the conditioning of the turbulent flow profile of gases or liquids to reduce the ADD (velocity profile distortion) DEL (turbulence), swirl, or irregu- larities caused by the installation effects of piping elbows, length ofpipe, valves, tees, and other such equipment or piping configurations that will affect the reading of flow measurement meters thus inducing measurement errors as a result ofthe flow profile of the gas or liquid not having a fully developed flow profile at the measurement point.
5. Flow Conditioner Design Methodology
5.1 Pipe Flow Profiles—Almost any description can be prescribed by using the perforated plate utilizing screen theory. That is, any upstream velocity profile, U 1 , can be changed to a downstream velocity profile, U 2 , with the use of a screen (herein referred to as a flow conditioner) (see Fig. 1).N OTE 1—The upstream flow profile need not be mathematically defined or even known. 5.1.1 The intent of the screen theory methodology is to suppress or allow flow such that the axi-symmetric distribution of the fluid flow eventually manifests itself into a fully developed state—g(r). Separating the pipe flow into annuli and correlating the openness of each annulus in terms of an effective beta ratio of that annulus with respect to a discretized reference fully developed velocity flow profile is then done to have the resultant velocity flow profile fully developed [or some chosen function, g(r)] . The annuli and accompanying nomenclature are defined in Fig. 2. 5.1.2 For a screen, the relationship between the downstream U 2 and upstream U 1 velocities can be shown to follow the relationship between sudden enlargements and contractions (the flow conditioner holes) as a fully developed state by using Equation X (Karnik and Erdal). This equation relates the pressure drop of the holes considered as sudden enlargements and the designer can use as many annuli (n) as they wish. The user of this practice is cautioned that manufacturing difficulty increases with the number of annuli chosen. It is also recom- mended that the downstream velocity relationship (function, equation) be that which is of a fully developed state. 5.1.3 Step 1—Choose a downstream velocity function. For pipeline flow measurement, all flow meters are on a baseline against a fully developed flow profile. It is recommended that a function replicating the fully developed state be used at the chosen Reynolds number.

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