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ASTM D937-07(R2019) pdf free download

ASTM D937-07(R2019) pdf free download.Standard Test Method for Cone Penetration of Petrolatum
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers measuring with a penetrometer the penetration of petrolatum as an empirical measure of consistency. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions: 3.1.1 penetration of petrolatum—the depth, in tenths of a millimetre, that a standard cone will penetrate the sample under fixed conditions of mass, time, and temperature. 3.1.2 penetrometer, n—an instrument that measures the consistency or hardness ofsemiliquid to semisolid materials by measuring the depth to which a specified cone or needle under a given force falls into the material. Discussion—In this test method, a standard pen- etrometer cone (see Test Methods D217) is used to determine the consistency of petrolatum. The penetration force is deter- mined by the total mass of the cone and shaft.
4. Summary of Test Method
4.1 The sample is completely melted by heating to a minimum temperature of 82 °C (180 °F), and then cooled under controlled conditions to 25 °C (77 °F). The penetration is measured with the cone and the sample at this temperature using a penetrometer by means of which a standard cone is applied to the sample for 5 s under a load of 150 g.
5. Significance and Use
5.1 Petrolatum is a purified mixture of semi-solid hydrocar- bons obtained from petroleum and is often described as an unctuous mass. Cone penetration is a means of measuring the firmness or consistency of petrolatum. Such measurements are useful for selecting or specifying, or both, a petrolatum of a particular consistency or firmness. Cone penetration values may or may not correlate with end-use functional properties.
7. Preparation of Sample
7.1 Test all samples of petrolatum for original consistency after melting and cooling to the temperature of the test as described in 7.3. 7.2 If the penetration of the sample is over 200, three separate test samples are required. 7.3 Melt the sample in an oven maintained at a minimum temperature of 82 °C 6 2 °C (180 °F 6 5 °F) or at a higher temperature if needed to completely melt the petrolatum (see Note 2). Place the required number of sample containers in the oven along with the sample to bring them up to the same temperature. When the sample has melted and comes to the selected temperature, remove the sample and the heated containers and fill the required number of containers to within 6 mm ( 1 ⁄ 4 in.) of their rims. Allow the filled containers to cool in a location free from drafts and at a temperature controlled to 25 °C 6 2 °C (77 °F 6 5 °F) for 16 h to 18 h. Then cover and place the samples in the water bath for 2 h to bring the temperature to 25 °C 6 0.5 °C (77 °F 6 1 °F) before testing. N OTE 2—Some petrolatums containing higher melting point waxes may require higher melting and pouring temperatures. If no estimate of the melting point is available, ensure that the sample is completely molten (appears visually clear) before proceeding. A hot plate may be used instead of an oven, provided that the sample temperature is carefully monitored.

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