Home>ASTM Standards>ASTM E1857-97(R2021) pdf free download

ASTM E1857-97(R2021) pdf free download

ASTM E1857-97(R2021) pdf free download.Standard Guide for Selection of Cleaning Techniques for Masonry, Concrete, and Stucco Surfaces
1. Scope
1.1 This guide covers procedures for the selection and assessment of cleaning techniques for removing soiling and staining from masonry, concrete, and stucco surfaces. Removal of paints, coatings, and graffiti may require measures beyond the scope of this guide. New construction is excluded from the scope of this guide. 1.2 This guide does not purport to address the causes of soiling or staining or to propose remedies for recurring soiling or staining. 1.3 Where work on surfaces of artistic, architectural, cultural, or historic significance is being considered, guidance from specialists should be sought. 1.4 This guide does not purport to address removal and replacement of prior repairs, repair of damaged surfaces, or other irregularities that contribute to the uneven or discolored appearance of masonry, concrete, and stucco surfaces. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
8. Cleaning Techniques
NOTE 3—The following cleaning techniques are not necessarily listed in order of aggressiveness. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the various cleaning procedures as they relate to the surfaces being cleaned. Whenever possible, contact the masonry, concrete, or stucco manufacturers and suppliers, the cleaning product manufacturers, and the cleaning equipment manufacturers to determine compatibility. Specialists may also be con- sulted. 8.1 Water Cleaning, relies on the ability of water to dissolve, swell, and loosen soiling and staining, enabling their removal from the surface. Mechanical scrubbing may enhance removal when staining is deeply deposited. 8.1.1 The effectiveness of water cleaning is influenced by the following factors: Pressure Rating, refers to the gauge pressure mea- sured at the nozzle of the cleaning equipment. Equipment capable of generating a pressure of 100 psi to 3000 psi (0.7 MPa to 20 MPa) is commonly used. Surfaces and sub- strates can be damaged by abrasion. Testing should determine the minimum effective pressure. The location ofthe pump with respect to the nozzle can affect the pressure rating. Water Flow Rate—Water supplied by the pump to the rinsing apparatus measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or litres per minute (L/min). Pumps delivering 1.5 gpm (3.8 L/min) may be used effectively in cleaning operations that require containment or control of effluent. More efficient cleaning is generally achieved with equipment providing a flow rate of 4 gpm to 8 gpm (15 L ⁄min to 30 L/min). Spray Tip, determines the size and configuration of the water spray delivered to the substrate. Fan-type spray tips producing 15° to 40° fan spray patterns have proven most effective for cleaning masonry, concrete, and stucco surfaces. Nebulized Water Spray—Effective for removal of soiling or other deposits from surfaces that could not withstand high pressure water or abrasive cleaning techniques. Pressure Water Spray—Effective for removal of loosely adhered soiling. 8.1.3 Limitations—Problems associated with water cleaning include intrusion of water into interior spaces, brown staining when iron-containing minerals are present, and the encourage- ment of biological growth. When water pressures are excessive, the surface can be abraded. Metal tools should not be used as scrubbing implements.

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