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ASTM E376-2019 pdf free download

ASTM E376-2019 pdf free download.Standard Practice for Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field or Eddy Current (Electromagnetic) Testing Methods
1. Scope
1.1 This practice covers the use of magnetic- and eddy current-type thickness instruments (gauges) for nondestructive thickness measurement of a coating on a metal (that is, electrically conducting) substrate. The substrate may be ferrous or nonferrous. The coating or plating being measured may be electrically conducting or insulating as well as ferrous or non-ferrous. 1.2 More specific uses of these instruments are covered by Practice D7091 and the following test methods issued by ASTM: Test Methods B244, B499, and B530. 1.3 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for informa- tion only and are not considered standard. 1.4 Measurements made in accordance with this practice will be in compliance with the requirements of ISO 2178 as printed in 1982. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
4. Significance and Use
4.1 General—Most thickness gauges are not applicable to all combinations of coating-substrate thicknesses and materi- als. The limitations of a particular instrument are generally delineated by its manufacturer. The substrate material and coating combination to be measured as well as the inherent variations in the substrate and coating shall be reviewed prior to selecting the instrument to be used and the measurement accuracy required. 4.2 Magnetic—Magnetic-type gauges measure either mag- netic attraction between a magnet and a coating or its substrate, or reluctance of a magnetic flux path passing through the coating and substrate. These gauges are designed to measure thickness of a nonmagnetic coating on a magnetic substrate. Some ofthem will also measure thickness ofnickel coatings on a magnetic or nonmagnetic substrate. 6 4.3 Eddy Current—Eddy current-type thickness gauges are electronic instruments that measure variations in impedance of an eddy current inducing coil caused by coating thickness variations. They can only be used if the electrical conductivity of the coating differs significantly from that of the substrate. 4.4 Accuracy—The accuracy of a measurement depends on the instrument, the foils, its calibration and standardization, and its operating conditions. The accuracy is also affected by the interferences listed in Section 5, such as part geometry (curvature), magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, and surface roughness. N OTE 2—This practice under ideal conditions may allow the coating thickness to be determined within 610 % ofits true thickness or to within 62.5 µm (or 60.0001 in.), whichever is the greater. (See exceptions in Appendix X2.)
5. Interferences
5.1 Thickness ofCoating—The precision of a measurement changes with coating thickness depending on method used and instrument design. Generally, the precision is a percentage of the coating thickness except at the lower end of the ranges where it is a fixed thickness. 5.2 Magnetic Properties of Basis Metal—Magnetic thick- ness gauges are affected by variations of the magnetic proper- ties of the basis metal. For practical purposes, magnetic variations in low-carbon AISI 1005-1020 steels may be con- sidered to be insignificant. To avoid the influences of severe or localized heat treatments and cold working, the instrument should be standardized using a reference standard having a base metal with the same magnetic properties as that ofthe test specimen or, preferably and if available, with a sample of the part to be examined before application of the coating.

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