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ASTM E587-2020 pdf free download

ASTM E587-2020 pdf free download.Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Contact Testing
1. Scope
1.1 This practice covers ultrasonic examination of materials by the pulse-echo technique, using continuous coupling of angular incident ultrasonic vibrations. 1.2 This practice shall be applicable to development of an examination procedure agreed upon by the users of the practice. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
4. Significance and Use
4.1 An electrical pulse is applied to a piezoelectric trans- ducer which converts electrical to mechanical energy. In the angle-beam search unit, the piezoelectric element is generally a thickness expander which creates compressions and rarefac- tions. This longitudinal (compressional) wave travels through a wedge (generally a plastic). The angle between transducer face and the examination face of the wedge is equal to the angle between the normal (perpendicular) to the examination surface and the incident beam. Fig. 1 shows the incident angle φ i , and the refracted angle φ r , of the ultrasonic beam. 4.2 When the examination face of the angle-beam search unit is coupled to a material, ultrasonic waves may travel in the material. As shown in Fig. 2, the angle in the material (measured from the normal to the examination surface) and mode of vibration are dependent on the wedge angle, the ultrasonic velocity in the wedge, and the velocity of the wave in the examined material. When the material is thicker than a few wavelengths, the waves traveling in the material may be longitudinal and shear, shear alone, shear and Rayleigh, or Rayleigh alone. Total reflection may occur at the interface. (Refer to Fig. 3.) In thin materials (up to a few wavelengths thick), the waves from the angle-beam search unit traveling in the material may propagate in different Lamb wave modes. 4.3 All ultrasonic modes of vibration may be used for angle-beam examination of material. The material forms and the probable flaw locations and orientations determine selec- tion of beam directions and modes of vibration. The use of angle beams and the selection of the proper wave mode presuppose a knowledge of the geometry of the object; the probable location, size, orientation, and reflectivity of the expected flaws; and the laws of physics governing the propa- gation of ultrasonic waves. Characteristics of the examination system used and the ultrasonic properties of the material being examined must be known or determined. Some materials, because of unique microstructure, are difficult to examine using ultrasonics. Austenitic material, particularly weld material, is one example of this material condition. Caution should be exercised when establishing examination practices for these type materials. While examination may be possible, sensitivity will be inferior to that achievable on ferritic materials. When examining materials with unique microstructures, empirical testing should be performed to assure that the examination will achieve the desired sensitivity. This may be accomplished by incorporating known reflectors in a mock up of the weld or part to be examined. For material with such unique microstructures, a technique and procedure shall be agreed upon between contracting parties.

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