Home>ASTM Standards>ASTM E9-09(R2018) pdf free download

ASTM E9-09(R2018) pdf free download

ASTM E9-09(R2018) pdf free download.Standard Test Methods of Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature
1. Scope
1.1 These test methods cover the apparatus, specimens, and procedure for axial-load compression testing of metallic mate- rials at room temperature (Note 1). For additional requirements pertaining to cemented carbides, see Annex A1. N OTE 1—For compression tests at elevated temperatures, see Practice E209. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions: The definitions of terms relating to com- pression testing and room temperature in Terminology E6 and Practice E171/E171M, respectively, shall apply to these test methods. 3.2 Definitions ofTerms Specific to This Standard: 3.2.1 buckling—In addition to compressive failure by crush- ing of the material, compressive failure may occur by (1) elastic instability over the length of a column specimen due to nonaxiality of loading, (2) inelastic instability over the length of a column specimen, (3) a local instability, either elastic or inelastic, over a small portion of the gage length, or (4) a twisting or torsional failure in which cross sections rotate over each other about the longitudinal specimen axis. These types of failures are all termed buckling. 3.2.2 column—a compression member that is axially loaded and that may fail by buckling. 3.2.3 radius ofgyration—the square root of the ratio of the moment of inertia of the cross section about the centroidal axis to the cross-sectional area.
5. Significance and Use
5.1 Significance—The data obtained from a compression test may include the yield strength, the yield point, Young’s modulus, the stress-strain curve, and the compressive strength (see Terminology E6). In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture, compressive strength is a value that is dependent on total strain and specimen geometry. 5.2 Use—Compressive properties are of interest in the analyses of structures subject to compressive or bending loads or both and in the analyses of metal working and fabrication processes that involve large compressive deformation such as forging and rolling. For brittle or nonductile metals that fracture in tension at stresses below the yield strength, com- pression tests offer the possibility of extending the strain range of the stress-strain data. While the compression test is not complicated by necking as is the tension test for certain metallic materials, buckling and barreling (see Section 3) can complicate results and should be minimized.
6. Apparatus
6.1 Testing Machines—Machines used for compression test- ing shall conform to the requirements of Practices E4. For universal machines with a common test space, calibration shall be performed in compression. 6.1.1 The bearing surfaces of the heads of the testing machine shall be parallel at all times with 0.0002 in./in. (m/m) unless an alignment device of the type described in 6.3 is used. 6.2 Bearing Blocks: 6.2.1 Both ends of the compression specimen shall bear on blocks with surfaces flat and parallel within 0.0002 in./in. (m/m). Lack of initial parallelism can be overcome by the use ofadjustable bearing blocks (Note 3). The blocks shall be made of, or faced with, hard material. Current laboratory practice suggests the use of tungsten carbide when testing steel and hardened steel blocks (55 HRC or greater) and when testing nonferrous materials such as aluminum, copper, etc.

Maybe you like

Standards Tags