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ASTM E9-2018 pdf free download

ASTM E9-2018 pdf free download.Standard Test Methods of Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature
1. Scope
1.1 These test methods cover the apparatus, specimens, and procedure for axial-load compression testing of metallic mate- rials at room temperature (Note 1). For additional requirements pertaining to cemented carbides, see Annex A1. N OTE 1—For compression tests at elevated temperatures, see Practice E209. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
6. Apparatus
6.1 Testing Machines—Machines used for compression test- ing shall conform to the requirements of Practices E4. For universal machines with a common test space, calibration shall be performed in compression. 6.1.1 The bearing surfaces of the heads of the testing machine shall be parallel at all times with 0.0002 in./in. (m/m) unless an alignment device of the type described in 6.3 is used. 6.2 Bearing Blocks: 6.2.1 Both ends of the compression specimen shall bear on blocks with surfaces flat and parallel within 0.0002 in./in. (m/m). Lack of initial parallelism can be overcome by the use ofadjustable bearing blocks (Note 3). The blocks shall be made of, or faced with, hard material. Current laboratory practice suggests the use of tungsten carbide when testing steel and hardened steel blocks (55 HRC or greater) and when testing nonferrous materials such as aluminum, copper, etc. The specimen must be carefully centered with respect to the testing machine heads or the subpress if used (see 6.3, Alignment Device/Subpress). N OTE 3—The purpose of an adjustable bearing block is to give the specimen as even a distribution of initial load as possible. An adjustable bearing block cannot be relied on to compensate for any tilting of the heads that may occur during the test. 6.2.2 The bearing faces of adjustable bearing blocks that contact the specimen shall be made parallel before the load is applied to the specimen. One type of adjustable bearing block that has proven satisfactory is illustrated in Fig. 3. Another arrangement involving the use of a spherical-seated bearing block that has been found satisfactory for testing material other than in sheet form is shown in Fig. 4. It is desirable that the spherical-seated bearing block be at the upper end of the test specimen (for specimens tested with the load axis vertical). The spherical surface of the block shall be defined by a radius having its point of origin in the flat surface that bears on the specimen.6.3 Alignment Device/Subpress: 6.3.1 It is usually necessary to use an alignment device, unless the testing machine has been designed specifically for axial alignment. The design of the device or subpress depends on the size and strength of the specimen. It must be designed so that the ram (or other moving parts) does not jam or tilt the device or the frame of the machine as a result of loading. The bearing blocks of the device shall have the same requirements for parallelism and flatness as given in 6.2.1. 6.3.2 The primary requirements of all alignment devices are that the load is applied axially, uniformly, and with negligible “slip-stick” friction. An alignment device that has been found suitable is shown in Fig. 5 and described in Ref. (3). Other devices of the subpress type have also been used successfully.

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