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ASTM E9-2019 pdf free download

ASTM E9-2019 pdf free download.Standard Test Methods of Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature
1. Scope
1.1 These test methods cover the apparatus, specimens, and procedure for axial-force compression testing of metallic materials at room temperature (Note 1). For additional require- ments pertaining to cemented carbides, see Annex A1. N OTE 1—For compression tests at elevated temperatures, see Practice E209. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
5. Significance and Use
5.1 Significance—The data obtained from a compression test may include the yield strength, the upper yield strength, the Young’s modulus, the stress-strain curve, and the compressive strength (see Terminology E6). In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture, compres- sive strength is a value that depends on total strain and specimen geometry. 5.2 Use—Compressive properties are of interest in the analyses ofstructures subject to compressive forces or bending moments or both and in the analyses of metal working and fabrication processes that involve large compressive deforma- tion such as forging and rolling. For brittle or nonductile metals that fracture in tension at stresses below the yield strength, compression tests offer the possibility of extending the strain range ofthe stress-strain data. While the compression test is not complicated by necking as is the tension test for certain metallic materials, buckling and barreling (see Appendix X1) can complicate results and should be minimized.
6. Apparatus
6.1 Testing Machines—Machines used for compression test- ing shall conform to the requirements of Practices E4 and shall be calibrated in compression. 6.1.1 The bearing surfaces of the heads of the testing machine shall be parallel at all times with 0.0002 in./in. (m/m) unless an alignment device or subpress ofthe type described in 6.3 is used. 6.1.2 The dynamic response of the force-measuring system shall be sufficient to accurately measure the rate of force change on the specimen. N OTE 2—This requirement is of particular importance when testing short specimens of materials with high modulus of elasticity. 6.1.3 Where verification of the testing machine speed is required, unless otherwise specified, Practices E2658 shall be used, and the testing machine shall meet Class E. 6.2 Bearing Blocks:N OTE 3—The purpose of an adjustable bearing block is to give the specimen as even a distribution of initial force as possible. An adjustable bearing block cannot be relied on to compensate for any tilting of the heads that can occur during the test. Tungsten carbide bearing blocks are suitable for testing steel. Hardened steel bearing blocks (55 HRC or greater) are suitable for testing nonferrous materials such as aluminum and copper. N OTE 4—Appendix X2 describes some bearing blocks that have been used successfully. 6.2.2 The bearing faces of adjustable bearing blocks that contact the specimen shall be made parallel before the force is applied to the specimen. Ifa bearing block with a spherical seat is used, the spherical surface of the block shall be defined by a radius having its point of origin in the flat surface that bears on the specimen. 6.3 Alignment Device or Subpress: 6.3.1 Alignment devices and subpresses shall apply the force axially, uniformly, and with negligible “slip-stick” fric- tion. N OTE 5— It is usually necessary to use an alignment device or subpress, unless the testing machine has been designed specifically for axial alignment. Appendix X2 shows some examples of alignment devices and subpresses that have been used successfully

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