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ASTM F2245-2020 pdf free download

ASTM F2245-2020 pdf free download.Standard Specification for Design and Performance of a Light Sport Airplane
1. Scope
1.1 This specification covers airworthiness requirements for the design of powered fixed wing light sport aircraft, an “airplane.” 1.2 This specification is applicable to the design of a light sport aircraft/airplane as defined by regulations and limited to VFR flight. 1.3 Units—The values given in this standard are in SI units and are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound (or other) units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents. Where it may not be clear, some equations provide the units of the result directly following the equation. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory requirements prior to use. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions: 3.1.1 electric propulsion unit, EPU—any electric motor and all associated devices used to provide thrust for an electric aircraft. 3.1.2 energy storage device, ESD—used to store energy as part of a Electric Propulsion Unit (EPU). Typical energy storage devices include but are not limited to batteries, fuel cells, or capacitors. 3.1.3 flaps—any movable high lift device. 3.1.4 maximum empty weight, W E (N)—largest empty weight ofthe airplane, including all operational equipment that is installed in the airplane: weight of the airframe, powerplant, Energy Storage Device (ESD) as part of an Electric Propulsion Unit (EPU), required equipment, optional and specific equipment, fixed ballast, full engine coolant and oil, hydraulic fluid, and the unusable fuel. Hence, the maximum empty weight equals maximum takeoffweight minus minimum useful load: W E = W − W U . 3.1.5 minimum useful load, W U (N)—where W U = W − W E . 3.1.6 night—hours between the end ofevening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight. Discussion—Civil twilight ends in the evening when the center of the sun’s disc is 6° below the horizon, and begins in the morning when the center ofthe sun’s disc is 6° below the horizon. 3.1.7 The terms “engine,” referring to internal combustion engines, and “motor,” referring to electric motors for propulsion, are used interchangeably within this specification. 3.1.8 The term “engine idle,” when in reference to electric propulsion units, shall mean the minimum power or propeller rotational speed condition for the electric motor, as defined without electronic braking of the propeller rotational speed. The airplane shall demonstrate compliance with this section while in trimmed steady flight for each flap and power setting appropriate to the following configurations: (1) climb (flaps as appropriate and maximum continuous power); (2) cruise (flaps retracted and 75 % maximum continuous power); and (3) approach to landing (flaps fully extended and engine at idle). 4.5.6 Dynamic Stability—Any oscillations shall exhibit de- creasing amplitude within the appropriate speed range (1.1 V S1 to maximum allowable speed specified in the POH, both as appropriate to the configuration). 4.5.7 Wings Level Stall—It shall be possible to prevent more than 20° ofroll or yaw by normal use ofthe controls during the stall and the recovery at all weight and CG combinations. 4.5.8 Turning Flight and Accelerated Turning Stalls: With the airplane initially trimmed for 1.5 V S , turning flight and accelerated turning stalls shall be performed in both directions as follows: While maintaining a 30° coordi- nated turn, apply sufficient pitch control to maintain the required rate ofspeed reduction until the stall is achieved. After the stall, level flight shall be regained without exceeding 60° of additional roll in either direction. No excessive loss of altitude nor tendency to spin shall be associated with the recovery. The rate of speed reduction must be nearly constant and shall not exceed 0.5 m/s 2 (m/s per second) (1 kt/s) for turning flight stalls and shall be 1.5 to 2.5 m/s 2 (m/s per second) (3 to 5 kt/s) for accelerated turning stalls. The rate of speed reduction in both cases is controlled by the pitch control.

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