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ASTM F3004-13(R2020) pdf free download

ASTM F3004-13(R2020) pdf free download.Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Seal Quality and Integrity Using Airborne Ultrasound
1. Scope
1.1 This standard method describes the technology and testing procedures that can be used to detect seal defects in the size range of 1 mm and characterize seal quality in a variety of packaging styles using airborne ultrasound technology. 1.2 This test method does not purport to be the only method for measurement of seal quality. 1.3 Heat seals and other package components can be tested in flexible, semi-rigid and rigid packages. Only the precision and bias for flexible package seals were evaluated in a recent ILS included in the method. The precision and bias for any specific package needs to be individually determined. 1.4 On-line, real time inspection of seals can be considered particularly in the L-Scan mode. 1.5 This method provides a non-destructive, quantitative, non-subjective approach to flexible package seal inspection. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter- mine the applicability ofregulatory limitations prior to use. 1.8 This international standard was developed in accor- dance with internationally recognized principles on standard- ization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recom- mendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions: 3.1.1 acoustic impedance, n—the product of a material’s density and its acoustic velocity. 3.1.2 airborne ultrasound, n—non-contact, non-destructive ultrasound technology that allows materials to be scanned and analyzed without physical contact with the transducers. No coupling is used other than air. 3.1.3 ultrasonic attenuation, n—the decay rate of the wave as it propagates through a material. It is the combined effect of scattering and absorption. 3.1.4 ultrasound, n—sound with frequencies greater than the upper limit of human hearing which is approximately 20 kHz. Typical industrial applications use much higher frequen- cies in the 1–100 MHz range. 3.1.5 ultrasound C-Scan, n—multiple L-Scans which accu- mulates data to describe an area of interest in both X and Y dimensions. 3.1.6 ultrasound L-Scan, n—a single linear scan across one direction over the area of interest.
4. Summary of Test Method
4.1 Ultrasound has been used for inspecting a wide variety of materials as well as human health issues, based on sending and receiving ultrasonic sound waves. Airborne Ultrasound (ABUS) is a non-contact ultrasound technology that allows packages to be scanned and analyzed without making any contact with the ultrasonic transducers. Unlike contact ultrasound, ABUS does not use liquid or gel coupling to propagate sound. It may be critical to production processes to analyze a bond without changing the characteristics of the package or product in any way which may affect salability. ABUS is capable of testing packaging where continuous and complete bonding between two materials is essential or, if the bond is limited, the degree of bonding. 4.2 ABUS is similar to most ultrasound applications in principle; however it uses air to propagate ultrasonic waves. The ABUS technology uses the transmission of ultrasonic waves to create a representative data image, allowing for quantitative evaluation of the quality of bonded materials. It has the ability to identify the size and location of defects, as well as problems with bond integrity that may or may not immediately result in leaks. The ultrasonic signal is translated by a signal processor into a quantitative data image that refers to signal strength continuously measured by the receiving ultrasonic transducer during scanning or while a sample seal moves relatively between them. The signal strength is mea- sured in a relative value, from strongest signal capable ofbeing transmitted through the air to no signal capable of being transmitted through the air (above the natural noise level ofthat frequency). Based on this scale of sound measurement, quan- titative data representations of the material being scanned can be used to characterize the condition of certain materials, most specifically whether two layers of material are appropriately bonded together.

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